This week, let's look at some verbs related to computers and technology! Many of these phrases are intuitive for anyone who speaks English, for example eine Mail öffnen or ein Fenster schließen, or ein Programm neu starten.
Below, you can see that the verb anhängen ("to attach") also works for email attachments:
Es sieht so aus, als hätte ich die PDF-Datei an die E-Mail angehängt.
It looks as though I attached the PDF file in an email.
Caption 36, Berufsleben: Probleme mit Mitarbeitern
However, it is often necessary to learn some new vocabulary. For example, to unlock a computer or cell phone, we use the verb entsperren or freischalten, and not aufschließen or entriegeln as you would for a door. And then, of course, there are the words that are relatively new to both languages.
Den Mac-Nutzern empfehlen die Spezialisten, ein von Apple bereitgestelltes Sicherheitsupdate herunterzuladen und zu installieren.
The specialists recommend Mac users download and install a security update that has been provided by Apple.
Caption 15-16, Apple-Trojaner: Wie man ihn beseitigt
Mein Management hat mir eine E-Mail weitergeleitet.
My management forwarded me an e-mail.
Caption 23, Schauspielerin: Jessica Schwarz
Ich habe auch ein E-Mail-Konto für Sie eingerichtet, welches Sie überprüfen können, sobald Sie eingeloggt sind.
I have set up an email account for you as well, which you can check as soon as you are logged in.
Caption 34-35, Berufsleben: das Vorstellungsgespräch
The infinitive forms of the verbs and participles from the examples above are anhängen ("to attach"), herunterladen ("to download"), installieren ("to install"), weiterleiten ("to forward"), and sich einloggen ("to log in").
For a list of words (including nouns and adjectives) related to computers and technology, you can look at this extensive list. Missing from this list are many "Denglisch" verbs related to technology (downloaden, updaten...), but these should not be used in your German class anyway! They are often used in office settings, but are still essentially slang and used mostly among younger co-workers. It is best to know the real German words.
It's quite easy to make mistakes with German words that sound nearly the same but have different prefixes and thus different meanings. For example, some verbs using the root verb lassen (to let, to leave):
Der Witzleben ist doch vor zwei Jahren vom Führer entlassen worden.
Witzleben was let go by the Führer two years ago.
Caption 23, Die Stunde der Offiziere: Dokudrama über den 20. Juli 1944
Sie verlassen den amerikanischen Sektor.
You are leaving the American Sector.
Caption 1, 25 Jahre Mauerfall: Radtour durch die Geschichte
The verb entlassen can mean "to be fired" or "to be let go," but it can also mean "to be released" as in released from prison. Depending upon its context, the verb verlassen can mean "to leave" or "to abandon."
But what about German words with different prefixes that can be translated as the same word in English? It can be even more confusing to keep these straight. A very good example of this are the verbs heiraten and verheiraten.
Ich weiß, eines Tages, da heiraten wir.
I know someday we'll marry.
Caption 32, Monsters of Liedermaching: Für immer
Using the example below with verheiraten and the subject reflected as the direct object (example 1: wir/uns, example 2: sie/sich), we arrive at the same meaning:
Ich weiß, eines Tages, da verheiraten wir uns.
I know someday we'll marry.
Ich weiß, eines Tages, da verheiraten sie sich.
I know someday they'll marry.
Both of the examples could use "get married" instead of "marry". The verb verheiraten, when used without a reflective direct object, has a different meaning, however:
Die Großmutter wollte den Sohn auf jeden Fall verheiraten.
The grandmother wanted badly to get her grandson married off.
Another easily confused pair are geheiratet and verheiratet:
Mein Bruder Martin hat letztes Jahr geheiratet.
My brother Martin got married last year.
Caption 19, Die Wohngemeinschaft: Besuch
Der König freute sich, dass seine Tochter endlich verheiratet war.
The King was delighted that his daughter finally got married.
Caption 37, Märchen, Sagenhaft: König Drosselbart
Both geheiratet and verheiratet can be translated as "got married," but there's a big difference in how you use the words. The word geheiratet is a past participle of the verb heiraten. The word verheiratet, on the other hand, is an adjective which stems from the verb heiraten. Thus you can can say: Ich habe geheiratet ("I got married") or Ich bin verheiratet ("I am married") but not vice-versa! A good way to remember the difference is that the prefix ge- ist one of the most common prefixes used in past participles of German verbs.
Frohes neues Jahr from all of us at Yabla German!
If a German friend had asked you what your plans were for New Year's Eve, would you have said Ich gehe aus or Ich gehe raus? As you may already know, rausgehen means simply “to exit,” while ausgehen means “to go out” in the sense of going out on the town.
There are many verbs that contain the verb gehen in German, and only some of them involve the physical act of going somewhere. Let’s look at some examples.
The verb aufgehen has many possible meanings, from simply “to open,” to “to rise” or “to expand.”
Man muss viele Türen öfter probieren, bis sie aufgehen.
One has to try many doors more times till they open.
Caption 65, Singer-Songwriter: Sebastian Niklaus
The verb eingehen can mean "to shrink," but auf etwas eingehen or auf jemanden eingehen means "to respond to" or "to agree to."
Ich hoffe, ich konnte Ihnen so ein bisschen zeigen, dass man auf unterschiedliche Zielgruppen unterschiedlich eingehen muss.
I hope I was able to show you a little bit that you have to respond differently to different target groups.
Caption 56, TEDx: Lebenslange Fitness
Umgehen means "to go around" in the sense of "to circumvent", but mit etwas/jemanden umgehen means "to deal with someone or a situation."
Wir wussten eigentlich nicht so richtig, wie wir damit umgehen sollten.
We actually didn't really know how we should deal with it.
Caption 14, 3nach9 - Ehrlich Brothers: Show-Magier
Look up the following related phrases and additional verbs: davon ausgehen, in Flammen aufgehen, das Risiko eingehen, fremdgehen. You can see a large list of verbs that include gehen here and search for them on Yabla German.
In German, there are two words that can be translated as "the accident": der Unfall, which is when you fall off your bicycle, and der Zufall, which refers to a random occurrence or coincidence. When you talk about something happening zufällig ("accidentally"), it implies this aspect of randomness. When we want to talk about something happening "accidentally" simply in the sense of it being "unintentional," there is a better adverbial phrase to use:
Jetzt bin ich aus Versehen zu weit gelaufen und muss den Bus nach Hause nehmen.
Now I've accidentally walked too far and have to take the bus home.
Caption 38, Shuah: Auf der Straße in Berlin
A less commonly used synonym for aus Versehen is ohne Absicht. Die Absicht means "the intention," "the aim," or "the purpose."
Das war Absicht.
That was on purpose.
Caption 16, JoNaLu: Überall Banditen
When we speak about something done "intentionally" or "on purpose," we can use either mit Absicht or the adverb absichtlich.
Ich konnte ja nicht wissen, dass du Max mit Absicht belogen hast.
I couldn't indeed have known that you lied to Max on purpose.
Caption 25, Die Pfefferkörner: Cybermobbing
Jemand hat Jannik Sternberg absichtlich vom Gerüst geschubst.
Someone intentionally shoved Jannik Sternberg off the scaffolding.
Caption 50, Großstadtrevier: Von Monstern und Mördern
Look absichtlich and aus Versehen up on Yabla German. Think of a few scenarios in which you would need to clarify whether an action was intentional or not and build a few sentences in the past tense. Here are a few pairs of nouns and verbs to get you started:
die Mail / weiterleiten
dich / anrufen
seinen Kaffee / trinken
die Tasche / zu hause lassen
Comparative adjectives express a higher degree of a particular quality, whereas superlative adjectives express the highest degree. In order to create comparative adjectives in English, we add "-er" to the end of shorter adjectives (such as "cheaper") or add “more” in front of longer adjectives (“more expensive”). In German, -er is added to all adjectives regardless of how many syllables they have. Mehr is never used for this purpose.
„Nichts leichter als das", antwortete Frederick.
"Nothing's easier than that!" answered Frederick.
Caption 4, Piggeldy und Frederick: Arm
Aber was noch viel wichtiger ist als der Saft zum Frühstück, ist natürlich der Kaffee.
But what's far more important for breakfast than juice is, of course, coffee.
Caption 14, Jenny beim Frühstück: Teil 1
Superlative adjectives in English either have "-est" at the end or are preceded by the adjective “most” ("cheapest," "the most expensive"). In German, the suffix -ste or -sten is used, depending on the declension. Take note: Putting meist in front of an adjective will give it a fully different meaning (similar to "mostly").
Das ist das schönste Gefühl auf der Welt.
That is the most beautiful feeling in the world.
Caption 66, Kinotipp: Kokowääh
Am einfachsten ist es bei Papier und Pappe.
It is easiest with paper and cardboard.
Caption 11, Eva erklärt: Mülltrennung
Jeden Tag trug die Prinzessin die schönsten Gewänder und den teuersten Schmuck.
Every day the Princess wore the most beautiful garments and the most expensive jewelry.
Caption 7-8, Märchen - Sagenhaft: König Drosselbart
When you learn a new adjective on Yabla German, take a moment to learn its comparative and superlative forms. Keep in mind that there are irregular forms where a slight spelling change (such as an umlaut) is required. Take a look at this table for some examples.
The alternate title to this week's lesson could be taken from Shakespeare's play Much Ado About Nothing, in that we'll be kept busy discussing the ways that Germans pronounce the word nichts, which means—well there you have it—"nothing":
„Frederick, was ist eine Wiese?“ -„Nichts leichter als das“, antwortete Frederick.
"Frederick, what is a meadow ?" -"Nothing's easier than that," Frederick answered.
Captions 4-5, Piggeldy und Frederick: Wiese
Aber du hast hier einfach nichts zu suchen, versteh das doch endlich.
But there is nothing for you here, you have to finally understand that.
Caption 4, Lilly unter den Linden: Vergangenheit und Zukunft
The word nichts is sometimes mispronounced by non-native German speakers as "nix," whereas the proper pronunciation requires that difficult soft back-of-the-mouth "ch" sound that lies somewhere between "k" and "sh." Click here (courtesy of Duden) to hear nichts pronounced correctly.
But while some non-Germans may not get the proper register for the word, you'll find many native Germans regularly pronouncing nichts as nix! That's because nix is common as a slang pronunciation of nichts. Unlike the soft -ch sound in nichts, this is pronounced as it is written with the X, and rhymes with the English words "ticks" and "bricks":
Man sagt: „Nix hält für immer“, doch ey, warum denn nicht?
People say, "Nothing lasts forever," but hey, why not actually?
Caption 6, Mark Forster: Wir sind groß
Aber heute ist es total sicher, kann nix passieren.
But today it's totally safe here, nothing can happen.
Caption 70, Unterwegs mit Cettina: Schlittschuhlaufen
This leaves us, of course, with nüscht, which also means "nothing," but does so with a distinctly Berliner accent. The Duden dictionary classifies nüscht as Berlin and Northeast German slang.
A good example of nüscht—or in this case, the variant nüschts—is found in a German-overdubbed version of the 1993 comedy film Loaded Weapon. Two cops, played by Samuel L. Jackson and Emilio Estevez, enter a hotel room occupied by a criminal, played by Jon Lovitz, who has just emptied a machine gun at them through the hotel door:
Jon Lovitz: Hey.... ich weiß nüschts. Ich habe nüschts gesehen und ich sage auch nüschts.
Samuel L. Jackson: Nichts. Das Wort heißt „nichts“ und nicht „nüschts“. Da ist kein Ü und kein -sch, es heißt „nichts“.
Jon Lovitz: Na gut, OK. „Nichts, nichts, nichts“! OK? Jetzt zufrieden?
Samuel L. Jackson: Schon besser.
The German script was adapted from the American, which had Jon Lovitz saying "nothin'" and getting a grammar lecture from Samuel L. Jackson about the word "nothing" having a G on the end.
Read the Wikipedia article on Berlin dialect, it could prove useful the next time you visit Berlin to help get your head around some of the different pronunciations found here. You can also read up more on the topic here. As an ending note, the German title of the Shakespeare play is Viel Lärm um nichts. How would you translate that directly?
This week, we're going to take a look at a few nouns that are automatically plural in English but singular in German. It is important for English speakers to take note of these before the wrong conjugation gets used, or an article gets left out.
A classic example of this is die Brille, which unlike its English translation "the glasses" is singular in German:
Wo ist meine Brille?
Where are my glasses?
Caption 3, Nicos Weg - Folge 21: Was ist das?
As you can see, the third person singular form of sein is used with die Brille, and NOT the third person plural like in English. Die Brillen sind... would indicate multiple pairs of glasses.
There are quite a few of these nouns, for example, die Hose, das Geschirr, and die Schere:
Ich habe mir auch gleich eine neue Hose gekauft.
I just bought myself new trousers as well.
Caption 23, Pettersson und Findus: Eine Geburtstagstorte für die Katze
Hier gibt's viel Geschirr, aber ich glaube, Christiane hat genug Geschirr.
There are a lot of dishes here, but I believe Christiane has enough dishes.
Caption 37, Fine: bringt ihre Sachen vorbei
Das hier ist eine Schere, mit der kann ich Metall schneiden.
These here are scissors with which I can cut metal.
Caption 5, Feuerwehr Heidelberg: Löschfahrzeug
While we say "the police are" in English, the noun is actually singular in German. Take a look at the conjugation of ermitteln below:
Die Polizei ermittelt wegen Hausfriedensbruch.
The police are investigating because of criminal trespassing.
Caption 12, Atomkraft: Streit um AKW-Laufzeiten
Take a note of any similar nouns you find on Yabla German and make sure to memorize them. Can you find any nouns that follow the opposite pattern?
Wenn du so dreinschaust, ist nicht gut Kirschen essen mit dir.
When you look like that, it's not good to eat cherries with you.
Caption 41, Marga Engel schlägt zurück
The above saying has little to do with the pleasant pastime of eating cherries, but as Eva explains:
Wenn mit jemandem nicht gut Kirschen essen ist, dann meinen wir damit eine unfreundliche Person.
If it's not good to eat cherries with someone, then we mean by that an unfriendly person.
Captions 10-11, Eva erklärt: Sprichwörter
From eating cherries, we move up to the nose:
Früher habe ich Fußball gemocht, aber seit dem gestrigen Halbfinale hab ich die Nase voll!
I used to like soccer, but since yesterday's semi-finals, I have the nose full!
Captions 22-23, Konjugation: Das Verb „mögen“
The person above is not literally suffering from nasal congestion, but rather:
Wenn man die Nase voll hat, dann bedeutet das, dass man auf eine bestimmte Situation keine Lust mehr hat, verärgert ist oder einer Sache überdrüssig wird.
If you have your nose full, then it means that you have no more patience for a certain situation, are annoyed, or have become weary of a matter.
Captions 34-36, Eva erklärt: Sprichwörter
And lastly we go from nasal situations to an apparent lack of pigs:
„Das“, sagte Frederick, „tja... das weiß kein Schwein.“
"That," said Frederick, "well... no pig knows that."
Captions 39-40, Piggeldy und Frederick: Das Fernweh
„So lange Vorderfüße hat doch kein Schwein und damit basta!“
"But no pig has such long front feet, and that's the end of it!"
Caption 38, Piggeldy und Frederick: Unendlichkeit
Vom Schwein spricht man übrigens auch, wenn man Desinteresse ausdrücken möchte. Dann sagt man: „Das interessiert doch kein Schwein.“
By the way, you also speak about pigs when you want to express disinterest. Then you say: "But no pig is interested in that."
Captions 55-56, Eva erklärt: Sprichwörter
The simplest straightforward translation of the idiom kein Schwein is thus "no-one."
Kein Schwein should be misunderstanding German idioms: Go to Yabla German and watch the Eva erklärt Sprichwörter series and find other examples of these expressions in different contexts. Later in the month we will be bringing you some more examples of idioms from this Yabla series!
For example, with the adjective halb:
...ein halber Teelöffel über drei Stücke Wurst.
... a half a teaspoon on three pieces of sausage.
Caption 39, Currywurst: Berlins schärfstes Stück
So ein halber Marathon sind 20 Kilometer.
Such a half marathon is 20 kilometers.
Caption 10, Internationale Automobilausstellung: IAA in Frankfurt öffnet die Pforten
Ein halber Mond versinkt vor mir.
A half moon sinks before me.
Caption 17, Tokio Hotel: Durch den Monsun
From knowing that the adjective halb, seen here as halber, means "half," you might make a mistake when you see a word of the same spelling in some other contexts:
Der Ordnung halber...
When you find a noun in the genitive case followed by halber, this is the preposition halber and means "for the sake of..." The above could be translated as "for the sake of orderliness" or "for the sake of clarity." Here are few other examples:
Der Einfachheit halber = for the sake of simplicity
Der Transparenz halber = for the sake of transparency
Der Vollständigkeit halber = for the sake of completeness
Der Datenqualität halber = for the sake of data quality
Der Ehrlichkeit halber = for the sake of honesty
In some cases, the use of the adjective halber became so common that it fused with a noun to become an adjectival suffix, or the ending of an adjective. The meaning that the suffix -halber lends a word is usually the same as the adjective:
gerechtigkeitshalber = der Gerechtigkeit halber = for the sake of justice
sicherheitshalber = der Sicherheit halber = for the sake of security
But sometimes it can have a slightly different meaning as the cause of something rather than for the sake of something:
krankheitshalber = because of illness
umständehalber = due to circumstances
Go to the German Duden dictionary and read the definitions of the adjective halber and the adjectival suffix halber. See if you can translate the title of this lesson to proper German, too! (Hint: it will use the genitive case of das Deutschlernen.)
This year, it has been an unusually warm fall in Germany. Even in early October, there were some days in the high 60s (Fahrenheit, between 17 and 21 degrees celsius). However, there have been some very chilly, windy days recently, and Germans have finally had to get out their winter clothing to be prepared for lower temperatures.
Let’s go from head to toe and take a look at what items you need to brave the German winter.
There are two words for “the hat” in German, but only one of them is associated with the wool knit caps that are worn in the cold months.
Und im Winter braucht man unbedingt eine Mütze.
And in the winter you absolutely need a cap.
Caption 24, Eva: zeigt uns Kleidungsstücke
Although some may prefer a daintier version (das Tuch, which is usually a thinner scarf or kerchief) even in the summer, a warm scarf or shawl (der Schal) is a must for the winter.
Was ist denn los? -Mir ist so kalt. Schenk mir doch deinen Schal!
What then is the matter? -I am so cold. Give me your shawl!
Caption 23, Märchenstunde: Die Sterntaler
Of course, a warm coat (der Mantel) or a jacket (die Jacke) is essential to any winter outfit. There are many options depending on the weather conditions. You can likely recognize the words der Wollmantel, der Daunenmantel, die Daunenjacke, or die Regenjacke without our help!
Es ist kalt. Ich trage einen Mantel.
It is cold. I'm wearing a coat.
Caption 14, Deutschkurs in Tübingen: Fragen
Der Handschuh is the singular form, but unless you've lost one, generally the plural for of "the gloves" is what you will use. Here, compound nouns also abound: such as die Strickhandschuhe, die Fleece-Handschuhe, die Lederhandschuhe, among others.
Giada, ist dir kalt? -Ja. -Möchtest du Handschuhe haben?
Giada, are you cold? -Yes. -Would you like to have some gloves?
Caption 82, Unterwegs mit Cettina: auf dem Bruchsaler Weihnachtsmarkt
And for rain and snow, you will want a good pair of boots for those slippery cobblestone streets.
Und er trägt wirklich Stiefel? Das muss ich sehen!
And is he really wearing boots? This I have to see!
Caption 29, Märchen - Sagenhaft: Der gestiefelte Kater
Watch the video Eva: zeigt uns Kleidungsstücke in its entirety on Yabla German. To
to immerse yourself even more, take a look at a website that sells outerwear and do some window shopping. You will learn a lot of new words and compound nouns as you scroll through the various items.
Some of the most practical German words that you can use immediately upon arrival in a German-speaking country (don't forget that German is spoken in Austria and Switzerland too!) are related to ordering food. When you first enter a restaurant, the waitstaff may invite you to take a seat:
Nehmen Sie bitte Platz.
Please have a seat.
Caption 35, Das Lügenbüro: Die Bewerbung
You may then be offered a menu:
Die Speisekarte, bitte schön. -Danke schön.
Here's the menu. -Thank you.
Caption 7, Abendessen: mit Marko
Note that another word for menu is das Menü, and sometimes Speisekarte is shortened simply to die Karte. When you are ready to order, you may inform the waitstaff:
Wir würden gerne bestellen, bitte.
We would like to order, please.
Caption 47, Melanie und Thomas: im Restaurant
Those of you with dietary restrictions may wish to discuss some menu items:
Kichererbsenbuletten sind das, ist auch vegetarisch, rein vegan ist das... ohne tierische Produkte.
Those are chick pea burgers, it's also vegetarian, it's purely vegan... without animal products.
Captions 26-28, Jonathan Johnson: Nahöstliches Essen in Berlin
Then there are several ways you can express your order to the waitstaff:
Ich hätte gerne eine Berliner Kartoffelsuppe.
I would like a Berlin potato soup.
Caption 21, Abendessen: mit Marko
Dann nehmen wir doch die Apfelküchle mit Vanilleeis.
Then we'll take the apple pies with vanilla ice cream after all.
Caption 43, Melanie und Thomas: im Restaurant
Before you begin eating:
Zu Beginn der Mahlzeit sagen wir „guten Appetit“.
At the beginning of the meal we say "Enjoy your meal."
Caption 19, Tisch decken: mit Eva
And when you are ready to pay, you can simply say bezahlen, bitte or die Rechnung, bitte. If you wish to pay with a credit card, you may ask:
Kann ich auch mit Kreditkarte bezahlen?
Can I also pay with a credit card?
Caption 7, Diane: auf dem Weihnachtsmarkt
If you need a receipt for tax or expense account purposes, after you pay you can ask for eine Quittung, bitte. As for tipping in Germany, you may want to read this Yabla lesson!
There are a lot of Yabla German videos related to food. Here are a few for you to start with!
While studying German, you have probably confronted both sitzen and setzen. Generally, the verb sitzen is quite straightforward in simply meaning "to sit," or more specifically "to be sitting." The reflexive verb sich setzen is also translated as "to sit" but refers to the action of sitting down (there is also the verb sich hinsetzen which can be more or less a synonym).
Wir sitzen hier am Strand in der Nähe von Todos Santos und sind am Meer.
We are sitting here on the beach near Todos Santos and are by the sea.
Caption 3, Anna: Am Strand in Mexiko
Wo setzen wir uns denn hin? -Setzen wir uns da drüben hin. -OK.
Where should we seat ourselves then? -Let's sit over there.
Caption 1, Fernsehmoderatorin: Sonya Kraus
To remember the distinction, it is perhaps helpful to consider that setzen as a non-reflexive verbs means "to put," "to place," or "to set."
Die helfen mir, noch leichter Ziele zu setzen.
They help me to set goals even more easily.
Caption 15, Gamification: Wie Spielen den Alltag interessanter macht
Setzen is also the root of a multitude of verbs. Take a look at the following examples with einsetzen ("to use," "to implement"), absetzen (which is used in many contexts, from "to deduct" something for your taxes to "to remove" a pair of glasses), and besetzen ("to occupy").
Früher hat man mehr als zwei-, dreitausend Liter eingesetzt für einen Wohnungsbrand.
In the past they used more than two or three thousand liters for an apartment fire.
Caption 88, Feuerwehr Heidelberg: Löschfahrzeug
Den Helm hatte er abgesetzt, weil es so heiß war.
He'd taken off the helmet because it was so hot.
Caption 53, Großstadtrevier: Von Monstern und Mördern
Man sollte keine Plätze besetzen mit Taschen oder mit Jacken, damit andere Gäste sich hinsetzen können.
You shouldn't occupy seats with bags or with jackets so that other guests can sit down.
Caption 33-34, Unterwegs mit Cettina: Bahn fahren
Here is a list of verbs with setzen as their root for your perusal. Look for examples of some of these verbs, such as aufsetzen, durchsetzen, or umsetzen, on Yabla German. Try to searching for their participles as well!
Unlike waitresses and waiters in restaurants in the United States, who often legally receive a wage well under standard minimum wage, but make up the difference through tips they receive from customers, waitstaff and bartenders in Germany usually receive at least standard minimum wage. In some cases, German waitstaff also earn a small percentage of their food and drink sales, regardless of the tips they receive from customers.
Perhaps it is for this reason that many German tourists, unaccustomed to tipping very much in restaurants and bars at home, often find it difficult to pay the standard 15 to 25 percent tip when visiting the United States. Germans often don't seem to understand that unlike in Germany, US waitstaff make their living primarily from tips, and merely rounding up the bill to the next dollar or fifty cents is not going to help them pay their rent.
The situation is so bad that in very expensive cities like New York, some waiters are reluctant to serve German tourists when they come into the restaurant, knowing from past experience that they may not earn any tip money from them. Since waiters are often taxed on the presumption of a 15 to 25 percent tip, they might even lose money if a table does not tip them.
Let's turn the tables for a moment, though, with apologies for the pun. As an American in Germany, you will find most waitstaff extremely gracious when you give them a decent tip. You are not really expected to tip beyond a few euros, however, though I always tip 10% percent when the service is at least acceptable.
But what do you say when you wish to leave a tip? Best not to leave der Tipp, as that does not mean "tip" in the sense of tipping the waitstaff, but rather "tip" in the sense of a hint or advice, like a "hot tip for the racetrack." The correct German word is das Trinkgeld, literally "the drink money." There are several more subtle ways to tell waitstaff that the money you are giving them is for a tip than to use the word Trinkgeld, however.
Das macht zusammen 40 Euro 50. Zahlen Sie bar oder mit Karte? -Ich zahle bar. Hier sind 45 Euro, das stimmt so. -Danke.
All together that is 40 euros and 50 cents. Will you be paying in cash or with a card? -I'll pay in cash. Here is 45 euros, that's correct thus. -Thanks.
Captions 7-8, Nicos Weg: Zahlen, bitte!
When Lisa says "das stimmt so" in the video above, she more or less means "keep the change," meaning the restaurant can keep as a tip the amount of money she gave them above the actual amount of the bill. However, if Lisa had handed them a 50 euro bill but only wanted to tip them 4 euros and 50 cents (for a total of 45 euros), then she could have stated the total amount she wanted them to keep and simply said "45 Euro, bitte."
So if you are paying at a cafe in Germany and the total for your coffee and cake is 9 euros and 20 cents, you could hand the waitstaff a 10 euro bill and say "das stimmt so," or you could hand them a 20 euro bill and say "10 Euro, bitte" to let them know that they can keep the amount over the bill up to 10 euros.
Additionally, you should be very careful with your use of the word danke when handing over cash: this will often be interpreted the same as das stimmt so. Don't be too surprised then if you thought you were merely being polite, but then the waiter doesn't return with your change!
Read this German Wikipedia article on Servicewüste Deutschland, and see if you can understand it all without having to peek at the English version. Then go to Yabla German to search for "restaurant" to find some examples of German used in a restaurant context. For more restaurant vocabulary, see this article about eating at restaurants in Germany.
In German, two verbs can be translated as "to live." Generally, students of German are taught that wohnen relates to more temporary living situations, and leben to more permanent living situations. This may seem highly subjective, and it is! Although there are sentences where only one option is correct, there are certainly sentences in which the speaker chooses a verb dependent on their perspective on the situation.
For example, if we look at the following two sentences from the video
Berlin: Judith und die „Brezel Bar“, we see that Judith uses both words to describe her living situation.
Ich selbst wohne auch in Kreuzberg, hier um die Ecke.
I myself also live in Kreuzberg, here around the corner.
Caption 12, Berlin: Judith und die „Brezel Bar“
Mein eigentlicher Beruf ist Buchhändlerin, aber seit ich in Berlin lebe, arbeite ich als Kellnerin und Barista in Cafés.
My actual occupation is book dealer, but since I've lived in Berlin, I've worked as a waitress and barista in cafés.
Caption 16, Berlin: Judith und die „Brezel Bar“
We notice here that Judith talks about her apartment being in Kreuzberg with the verb wohnen and her life in Berlin with the verb leben. Wohnen is often used to talk about domesticity, such as inhabiting an apartment or a house. German philosopher Martin Heidegger is well-known for his text Bauen, Wohnen, Denken, which is translated as "Building, dwelling, thinking" in English. Ikea in Germany has for many years had the slogan Wohnst du noch oder lebst du schon? which highlights that occupying or sleeping in a space does not necessarily mean that you are really at home there. In German, the phrase Hast du dich eingelebt? means "Have you settled in?" also reflecting that leben has a deeper sense of permanence than simply dwelling or residing.
In this sentence, Brigitta uses wohnen to express that she is staying with friends, which is obviously a temporary situation:
Vielen, vielen Dank, dass ich hier bei euch wohnen kann.
Many, many thanks for allowing me to stay here with you.
Caption 13, Die Wohngemeinschaft: Besuch
In this next sentence, it would be possible to say Ich wohne allein, but this would highlight the domestic aspect of living by oneself in an apartment or house, rather than describing a way of life. A person might also say Ich lebe gesund, for example.
Ich lebe allein, ich bin unabhängig und ich liebe meine Arbeit.
I live alone, I am independent and I love my work.
Caption 48, Malerei: Impressionistinnen
And of course, not to be forgotten, leben is also the verb for "to be alive" itself!
Schneewittchen lebt, bei den sieben Zwergen im Wald.
Snow White is alive, with the seven dwarfs in the forest.
Caption 54, Märchen - Sagenhaft: Schneewittchen
There are many examples of leben and wohnen on Yabla German. Think about your own life and which verb you would use to describe various places you have lived, or your current life and lifestyle.
It is sometimes easy to be misled by German adverbs, which may not be quite what they appear at first glance. Take the adverb bislang: if you break it into its constituent parts bis ("until") and lang ("long"), you might conclude it means "for a long time"—but you would unfortunately be wrong.
There are, however, a number of other expressions in German that mean "for a long time":
seit langem (or seit Langem, both are correct):
Dieses Tier wollte er schon seit langem filmen.
He has wanted to film this creature for a long time.
Caption 47, Abenteuer Nordsee: Unter Riesenhaien und Tintenfischen
Im Jahr 1953 gab es in der DDR einen Aufstand, an den lange Zeit in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland ein Feiertag erinnerte.
There was an uprising in the GDR in 1953, which a holiday has memorialized for a long time in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Captions 22-23, Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Einbürgerungstest
seit langer Zeit:
Comedy geht mir seit langer Zeit aufn Keks.
Comedy has been getting on my nerves for a long time.
Caption 2, Filmtrailer: Hexe Lilli
or simply lange:
Und wir haben uns mit Siegfried lange unterhalten dürfen.
And we were able to speak with Siegfried for a long time.
Caption 29, Ehrlich Brothers: Show-Magier
But back to bislang: it can be variously translated as "up till now," "until now," or "so far," depending upon the context:
Die vierzehnjährige Floh hat bislang noch keine eigenen Kinder bekommen.
Up till now, the fourteen year old Floh still has never had any children of her own.
Caption 13, Unter fremden Fittichen: Uhu-Mama zieht Hühnerküken auf
Überraschungssieger und damit neuer deutscher Meister ist der bislang in der Szene unbekannte Alexander Lehmann aus Kiel.
Surprise winner, and therefore the new German champion, is Alexander Lehmann from Kiel, who was unknown in the scene until now.
Captions 5-6, Die Insel Fehmarn: Speedsurfen auf Fehmarn
Bislang konnte das die Ausbreitung der Läden aber nicht stoppen.
So far, however, this hasn't stopped the spread of the shops.
Caption 25, Perlentee: In allen Mündern
Go to Yabla German to search for other examples of how the adverb bislang and expressions meaning "for a long time" are used in a real-world context.
In both English and German, there are tenses and there are moods. We use the indicative mood to state facts, the imperative mood to give commands, and the subjunctive mood to reflect wishes or actions in unreal situations ("I wish I were taller" or "I would travel around the world."). Take a look at this past newsletter for information on the formation of the subjunctive (Konjunktiv) in German. The subjunctive is a key part of conditional sentences that describe levels of possibility, from events that are very likely to missed opportunities in the past.
Type 1 conditional sentences refer to cause-and-effect links, and events that are quite certain under particular circumstances. Because German sentences often use the present tense to imply the future, the basic structure is wenn or falls (see this newsletter) followed by the present tense, like in English, but then it can be followed by either the present tense or future constructed with werden.
Wenn es so weitergeht, werden bis 2050 drei Viertel aller Alpengletscher verschwunden sein... mit gewaltigen Folgen.
If it continues this way, by 2050, three quarters of all the alpine glaciers will have disappeared ... with enormous consequences.
Caption 33-34, Alpenseen: Kühle Schönheiten
Type 2 conditional sentences refer to events that are less possible or likely, often hypothetical. Its structure in German is Wenn + Konjunktiv II + Konjunktiv II.
Wenn immer Sommer wäre, würde ich jeden Tag grillen.
If it were always summer, I would grill every day.
Caption 29, Konjugation: Das Verb „grillen“
Wenn ich viel Geld hätte, würde ich nie wieder arbeiten gehen.
If I had a lot of money, I would never go to work again.
Caption 23, Konjugation: Das Verb „gehen“
Ich denke, wenn ich weniger arbeiten würde, könnte ich mich mehr konzentrieren.
I think that if I worked less I could concentrate better.
Caption 34-35, Berufsleben: Probleme mit Mitarbeitern
Type 3 conditional sentences are used to talk about possibilities or events that never came to be. Here is where the structure gets a bit complicated. In its full form, the construction is Wenn + participle + Konjunktiv II + Konjunktiv II + participle.
Wenn wir eine Chance gehabt hätten, dann wären wir vorher gegangen, ja.
If we had had a chance, then we would've left before, yes.
Caption 34, Die Klasse: Berlin '61
Ja, wenn Jannik fit gewesen wäre, dann wäre er nie runtergekracht.
Yes, if Jannik had been healthy, then he wouldn't have ever gone crashing down.
Caption 59, Großstadtrevier: Von Monstern und Mördern
It is worth mentioning that you may often see "mixed types" of the conditional, in which a missed opportunity in the past (expressed using the participle) is portrayed as still affecting the present. Take a look at the following sentence:
Also, wenn wir den Vertrag letzte Woche unterzeichnet hätten, wären wir in der Lage, mit unserer ursprünglichen Vereinbarung fortzufahren?
So, if we had signed the contract last week, we would be in a position to proceed with our original agreement?
Caption 36-37, Berufsleben: Probleme mit Mitarbeitern
For more information on the different types of conditional sentences, take a look at this helpful website. Whenever you see key words like hätte, wäre, or würde on Yabla German, note the subjunctive mood and try to identify which type of conditional sentence it might be related to.
You are probably very familiar with the noun die Zeit, usually translated as "time," but may not know that there is also a preposition with the same spelling: zeit. We covered this to some extent in a previous lesson, but it's time for an in-depth recap. There is some potential confusion with expressions that use the noun die Zeit with a genitive modifier that we should look at first:
Das wird die Zeit meines Lebens.
It will be the time of my life.
Caption 18, Glasperlenspiel: Geiles Leben
This very straightforward expression, "having the time of your life," meaning that you are enjoying yourself very much, is common in English too.
However, if you were to use the genitive preposition zeit in an expression that appears to be very similar, it would in fact mean something entirely different:
Und trotzdem hatten Morisot und ihre drei Mitstreiterinnen zeit ihres Lebens mit ihrer Malerei Erfolg.
And Morisot and her three fellow campaigners were nevertheless successful all their lives with their painting.
Captions 73-74, Malerei: Impressionistinnen
As you can see, the preposition zeit means, in a general way, "during the whole course of," so the literal translation "during the whole course of their lives" is more simply translated as "all their lives." The genitive form thus renders this standard expression in the following forms:
— zeit meines Lebens ("all of my life")
— zeit deines Lebens ("all of your life")
— zeit Ihres Lebens ("all of your life")
— zeit seines Lebens ("all of his life," or for neuter subjects like animals, "all of its life")
— zeit ihres Lebens ("all of her life" or "all of their lives")
— zeit unseres Lebens ("all of our lives")
— zeit eures Lebens ("all of your lives")
Luckily, the preposition zeit is not commonly spoken, and nearly always in the above context when used at all. Remember that if the definite article die is used, then it's referring to having a good time, whereas the lack of definite article will be a good indication of its use referring to the span of a lifetime.
There's another expression for "all of your life" that may also appear a bit odd to the non-native German speaker:
Da sammelte es sich die Taler hinein und war reich für seinen Lebtag.
Then she gathered up the thalers and was rich for the rest of her life.
Caption 35, Märchenstunde: Die Sterntaler
You can remember the meaning of Lebtag more easily if you think of it as "the rest of the days of your life." If you are curious as to why es is translated here as "she" and seinen as "her," you should read the Yabla German lesson "Possessive Gender Benders."
Go to Yabla German to find other examples of how the noun die Zeit and the preposition zeit are used in real-world contexts, and read the full definition of the preposition zeit on Duden.
In a previous newsletter, we outlined the difference between wann, wenn, and als. This week, we'll take a look at wann and wenn in the context of the words listed above, which tend to be a bit confusing for beginners.
Wann is a question word, like was or wie. It is concerned with at what point in time something will happen, but not if it will happen.
Wann werden Sie diesen Flughafen eröffnen können?
When will you be able to open this airport?
Caption 28, Berlins regierender Bürgermeister: Pläne für 2014
Genau, ja, wir schauen grad, wann der perfekte Zeitpunkt ist.
Exactly, yes, we are looking right now when the perfect time would be.
Caption 40, Wincent Weiss & Benni Freibott: Musik sein
The word wenn can be confusing, because it can be translated as “if,” but also as “when” or “whenever.”
Wenn man die Augen schließt und an Berlin denkt, was sieht man da?
If you close your eyes and think about Berlin, what do you see there?
Caption 1, Berlin: Hotel Adlon feiert 15 Jahre Neueröffnung
Wenn schon so starker Schneefall ist, dann muss man die Zeit eigentlich optimal nutzen.
When there is such heavy snowfall, then you actually have to use your time optimally.
Caption 30, 48 h in Innsbruck: Sehenswürdigkeiten & Tipps
The word ob means "whether," but is also translated as "if." It is generally used in sentences that involve two options or a question that could be answered with "no" just as easily as "yes."
Ich bin mir aber nicht sicher, ob das Eurem Vater gefällt.
But I'm not sure if your father will like that.
Caption 12, Das Märchen von der Prinzessin - die unbedingt in einem Märchen vorkommen wollte
Ich möchte schauen, ob ihr die Regeln verstanden habt.
I want to see whether you have understood the rules.
Caption 63, Deutschkurs in Tübingen: Trennbare Verben und Wortstellung
Falls also means "if," but, unlike wenn, can only be used with the conditional type I and not conditional type II or III. It is also often translated as "in case."
Ähm, falls Ihre Schwester trockene Haut hat, wär' des [das] ganz toll. -OK, super.
Um, if your sister has dry skin, that would be totally great. -OK, super.
Caption 35-36, Rhein-Main-TV: Eva Padberg beim Weihnachtseinkauf
Natürlich auch einen warmen Pulli, falls es kalt wird.
Of course, also a warm pullover, in case it gets cold.
Caption 9, Christiane: fährt in den Urlaub
To review the types of conditional sentences in English (mentioned above), take a look at this website. A newsletter on creating conditional sentences in German is forthcoming, so it's a good way to prepare! When you watch videos on Yabla German, note how wenn, ob, and falls are translated. Consider whether the word used could be swapped out for one of the others, and why or why not.